Internet of Things (IoT)

物联网是什么?为何如此重要?

从大型工业机械到消费品,物联网将日常生活中的物体连接在一起。这个网络正在成长与壮大中。在这个网络中,您可以在忙于其它活动的同时分享信息和完成任务,比如在工作、睡觉或锻炼的时候。

不久以后,我们的车、房、家电甚至是城市街道,都将和互联网连接在一起——创建出这个称为物联网(Internet of Things)的物品网络,简称IoT。

由数以百万计的传感器和设备构成的物联网,昼夜不停地产生数据流,可以通过多种方式改变我们的生活和商业。它是如何发挥作用的?哪些组件构成了物联网?

物联网由三个主要组件构成:

  1. 物品(或资产)本身。
  2. 将它们连接起来的通讯网络。
  3. 对从物品中流入流出的数据进行处理的计算系统。

基于这个架构,物品或资产可彼此通信,甚至通过分析网络数据流优化它们之间的活动。

想象一个洒水系统,使用预测、气象传感器和按用水量计价的计费方式来优化您的草坪浇灌流程。或者一个公用垃圾桶,可根据需求压缩垃圾并且在装满时提醒清洁工人。

自动停车在今天还十分罕见,但是想象一下全自动车辆可作为出租车高效地在城市运行,并且自动停车拉上那些预算有限的旅行者,通过拼车分享费用;或者让货车快速安全地通行,避免交通延误或优化零配件替代方案。

家庭安防系统已经让您可以远程控制您的门锁和温度调节器,但是如果它们能够代表您采取前瞻性的活动——基于您的喜好、现有的气象条件和您即将到家等因素,降低您家中的温度和自动打开窗户,又会怎么样呢?


Sensors offer unprecedented access to granular data that can be transformed into powerful knowledge. Without an integrated business analytics platform, though, sensor data will just add to information overload and escalating noise.

Learn how companies are using sensor data


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关于物联网的十大事实和预测

您很可能会惊讶于竟然有这么多的物品连接在互联网上,并且通过分析数据流能得到如此多的好处!看看这些让人惊奇的数字:

  •  Gartner预测来自全世界各行业的物联网经济附加总值将在2020年达到1.9万亿美元。
  • Cisco预测到2020年将有500亿的设备接入到互联网中。
  • 远程病人监护 市场规模从2007到2011翻了一番,预计到2016年会再翻一番。
  • 根据study from Navigant Research的研究.,智能电网的发展预计将使得客户信息系统市场翻番,从2013年的25亿美元,到2020年将会增长到55亿美元。
  • McKinsey指出,随着汽车行业物联网技术的广泛部署,每年可以节省1000亿美元因意外事故导致的损失。
  • The industrial Internet could add $10-15 trillion to global GDP, essentially doubling the US economy, says GE.
  • Seventy-five percent of global business leaders are exploring the economic opportunities of IoT, according to a report from The Economist.
  • The UK government recently approved 45 million pounds (US$76.26 million) in research funding for Internet of Things technologies.
  • Cities will spend $41 trillion in the next 20 years on infrastructure upgrades for IoT, according to Intel.
  • The number of developers involved in IoT activities will reach 1.7 million globally by the end of 2014, according to ABI Research estimates.

Advanced thinking on the Internet of Things

Jason Handley, Director of Smart Grid Technology and Operations for Duke Energy, discusses the promise of a world where everything is connected, energy is efficient and it's all driven by the knowledge gained through the use of advanced analytics.

 

How will you benefit from the Internet of Things?

What does it mean if devices and sensors are networked together and communicating with one another? How will the Internet of Things affect your everyday life? There’s the obvious: GPS systems, alarm systems and thermostats – all sending and receiving constant streams of data to monitor and automate activities in our automobiles and homes. And the not-so-obvious? Floors, cups, clothes and other everyday objects can also be networked to stream data to and from the Internet.

Businesses are actively looking for opportunities where streaming data will create new markets, inspire positive change or improve existing services. Let’s look at some examples from industries at the forefront of this revolution:

  • Intelligent transport solutions speed up traffic flows, reduce fuel consumption, prioritize vehicle repair schedules, and save lives.
  • Smart electric grids more efficiently connect renewable resources, improve system reliability and charge consumers based on smaller usage increments.
  • Remote health care monitoring provides convenient access to health care, raising its quality and reach, and saving money.
  • Sensors in homes and airports, or even shoes and doors, improve security by sending signals when they are unused for a certain period of time – or if they are used at the wrong time.
  • Machine monitoring sensors diagnose – and predict – pending maintenance issues, near-term part stockouts, and even prioritize maintenance crew schedules for repair equipment and regional needs.

 

What is the internet of things
Connected devices are making their way into the mass market. Are you ready?

Ready or not - here comes the data

Connected devices are making their way from business and industry to the mass market. We’ll be seeing more and more compact, connected sensors and actuators in everyday consumer electronics, household appliances and city infrastructures. So, if you’re low on milk, you can get an alert from your refrigerator as you travel by the store on the way home and before lifting a nearly empty carton at dinner.

If you’re a loyal customer when you pick up that carton of milk at the store, you might not even need to check out. Sensors will identify what you have taken from the shelf and automatically charge your account when you leave the store with the item.

We expect to see massive increases in data being generated by these devices pouring into our networks and systems. Already, billions of information events are generated every second, ready to be processed, analyzed and shared between devices and with people, to improve lives.

The devices are ready. The network is in place. And the torrent of data has started. Are you ready?

Thomas Davenport
To make the Internet of Things useful, we need an Analytics of Things. This will mean new data management and integration approaches, and new ways to analyze streaming data continuously. I'm pleased that SAS is focusing on this important area.

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Thomas H. Davenport
President's Distinguished Professor, Babson College
Co-founder and Director of Research, International Institute for Analytics
Author of Competing on Analytics and Big Data at Work

How can the Internet of Things benefit your industry?

If you work in manufacturing or telecommunications, you are already seeing the effects of the Internet of Things. Clearly, the IoT is not just a convenience for consumers. It offers new sources of data and business operating models that can revitalize productivity and success.

As more and more devices, machines and industrial assets become connected to the Internet, the ecosystems connecting businesses will change the way we function and make decisions. There’s a tremendous amount of data being generated, and it offers great potential to the companies that can extract the meaning from streaming data.

Did you know that a modern oil and gas drilling platform generates 8 terabytes of data a day. A modern airplane can generate 40 terabytes of data in an hour. And the newest automobiles generate a gigabyte of data a second. And the Internet of Things is just getting started!

This is not data that you store in a data warehouse and keep around for later analysis. To profit from this data it’s analyzed as it flows into the organization. You can make analytically sound decisions on it, integrate with other streams for machine-to-machine communication and monitor situational awareness from a control room to watch for anomalies. By applying streaming analytics, you can understand what’s about to happen, predict failures or security risks before they happen – and save a whole lot of money.

Now you can understand everything from usage and behavior to component performance. What’s happening, what’s not working as needed, and how can you improve service or maintenance. All of these things become clearer with instant data feedback.

The Interent of Things infographic
The Internet of Things explained. Click to enlarge

Analyzing IoT data

In IoT discussions, it’s recognized from the onset that analytics technologies are critical for turning this tide of streaming source data into informative, aware and useful knowledge.

But how do we analyze data as it streams nonstop from sensors and devices? And how does the process differ from other analytical methods that are common today?

In traditional analysis, data is stored and then analyzed. However, with streaming data, the models and algorithms are stored and the data passes through them for analysis. This type of analysis makes it possible to identify and examine patterns of interest as the data is being created – in real time.

So before the data is stored, in the cloud or in any high-performance repository, you process it automatically. Then, you use analytics to decipher the data, all while your devices continue to emit and receive data.

With advanced analytics techniques, data stream analytics can move beyond monitoring existing conditions and evaluating thresholds to predicting future scenarios and examining complex questions.

To assess the future using these data streams, you need high-performance technologies that identify patterns in your data as they occur. Once a pattern is recognized, metrics embedded into the data stream drive automatic adjustments in connected systems or initiate alerts for immediate actions and better decisions.

Essentially, this means you can move beyond monitoring conditions and thresholds to assessing likely future events and planning for countless what-if scenarios.


Technologies for the Internet of Things

Many organizations are already feeling overwhelmed by the increasing amounts of data that require storage and analysis. There’s a legitimate fear that the Internet of Things will only compound that challenge.

Luckily, a variety of market forces have combined to make analysis of IoT data possible. The increase in computing power, the prevalence of cloud technologies and the advent of high-performance computing are all trends that have prepared businesses for the Internet of Things. With the right infrastructure in place, you can start today. Depending on your industry, each of these technologies can play a role:

The Internet of Things will affect us all, and these are just some of technologies that can help you realize the benefits of a totally connected world. It might sound futuristic, but it’s happening now. Analyzing streaming data while it flows in the network is creating a new realm of knowledge for organizations that act now.

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